Differential Association | Sociology | Chegg Tutors
Posted On September 17, 2020
according to differential association theory, who is more likely to be a delinquent? This is a topic that many people are looking for. chibariku.com is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, chibariku.com would like to introduce to you Differential Association | Sociology | Chegg Tutors. Following along are instructions in the video below: My name is fallon and im here today with check tutors to talk to to you about the theory of differential association. So the theory of differential association was by edwin sutherland to try to help explain criminal behavior basically what this theory. Says is that deviant group behavior results from normative conflict. And i know that sounds like a lot. But stay with me ill break it down for you so conflict among norms. Affects deviance. When people are part a variety of a variety of social groups. So youre part of many different social groups your family. The neighborhood that you live in the friends that you have at school your peer groups and so on so each of these groups has a different set of norms. And some of the time those norms will be different. Which means theyll end up conflicting with each other so one of these groups will tell you to do one thing and say that thats what you should be doing and the other group will tell you a different thing. So for example your family might say. No. The norm is you have to be home by 10 o.clock. Every night. And your friend group says. No the norm for our friend group is that were going to stay out until midnight every night. Because thats when we want to be out to those norms are going to conflict with each other because they dont say the same thing. And as a result deviant behavior might happen so. The person whose friends are saying stay out till. 12. 00 and whose family saying come home by 10 00 might end up deciding to stay out till. 12. 00 with their friends. Because their friend might be more influential group for them at that point in time so. The theory says several different things first. It says. The delinquency is a learned behavior. And that delinquency is learned in the same way. We as humans. Learn everything else so. The same way. Youve learned algebra you can learn delinquency. And it says.
That delinquency is learned through social interactions with others with in your close. Personal groups. So the groups that youre part of that you think are the most important to you are the most likely to influence your behavior. And if the social groups that youre a part of engage in delinquent behavior. You are more likely to learn that delinquent behavior and act on it this theory also says that whenever youre learning this behavior. Not only are you learning how to be delinquent or the techniques that go along with this deviant behavior. But youre also learning the motivations behind it so why people are acting in the deviant way that they are and whenever you learn those motivations and you identify with them and they are a strong good idea for you then you are a lot more likely to follow through with the deviant behavior that youve learned if somebody says i stole this because i thought it would be funny to see the reaction of the store owner and you dont agree with that motivation or isnt a strong motivator for you then you are less likely to follow through and repeat that deviant behavior that youve just learned through your social interaction. With your friend. It also says that a person becomes so linked whant because the number of definitions that favor violating a norm is greater than the number of definitions that dont favor violating that norm and a person learns the definitions about behavior within the groups he or she associates with in so youre going to learn different things in different groups. And how many things in each group. You learn about a certain norm are going to affect how you act in terms of that norm so and each of these definitions. The definitions of behavior will vary in frequency duration. Priority and intensity. So the way that you frame a certain behavior will change throughout your life based on the groups that you associate with and the attitudes that those groups have because not every person keeps the exact same beliefs throughout their entire lifetime and not every person is able to associate with a certain group or social structure the same amount of time or the same amount of intensity so like your friend group during the summer is probably going to have more of an impact on you than if you go away to boarding school to see different people during fall through spring for school. So i have an example up here for you it might be a little hard to see. But ill talk you through it so. The example that im going to give you deals with stealing and you know typically the cultural norm around stealing is that its not good to do their laws against it and yet people still steal so part of what this theory does this helps to explain why people might steal even though. The general cultural norm is that its not okay so on the left here we have all the reasons. You shouldnt steal think of yourself as a young teenager with your group of friends. Wondering whether or not you should steal a candy bar from the store or maybe something bigger a car so on the left here we have all the reasons you shouldnt steal like your family will think less of you so thats your family group changing the way you think of a norm. Youll go to jail. Which is the government affecting whether or your view on a norm. The bible says you shouldnt steal. Which is your religion. Saying giving you an opinion on a certain norm those are all the reasons. Why you shouldnt steal. But if you notice on the right there are more reasons. Why you should steal and because those outweigh the other ones are the reasons that you shouldnt steal you are more likely to end up stealing if its a learned behavior. Within a group that youre part of so some of the reasons that you should steal or that your friends will think youre cool everyone steals. No one ever gets caught you need to steal to get ahead. There are plenty of other reasons. Why people might choose to steal but on the other hand. There are also plenty of other reasons. Why people might choose not to steal however in this particular situation for this particular teenager. The reasons to steal have outweighed the reasons not to steal so the different associations that this person has with stealing affect whether or not they decide to steal if they thought if they were parts of groups that influenced them into thinking that stealing was a bad thing.
And that you shouldnt steal then theyre less likely to learn how to steal and then subsequently decide to steal so to sum up differential association theory says that conflict among norms can create deviance when there are more reasons to violate a norm than there are to not violate that norm. If you have any other questions feel free to get in touch with me or another check tutor thanks so much for watching. fat and we measured that by something called underwater weighing. Which is one of the best better ways to measure percent body fat unfortunately. Though that didnt carry through now mind you i keep doing work on different types of research. We have some research going on where were trying to change the environment to sort of force people to do better in their diet and exercise habits. But today. Im focusing on these two studies. Which are more with older adults. So another study. We did with more of a convenient samples. We actually evaluated women all african american women about average age of 78 years and that was pretty exciting because a lot of these women also had a lot of diseases going on so they werent these healthy women who came to us they had heart disease they had kidney disease. Diabetes etc. And we had the facility of the living independently for elders at university of pennsylvania. Where i was before at drexel and we wanted to see if they could increase their physical activity. So basically the design was is that and and i realized that i just told you that and i meant to tell you that a lot of older individuals decrease their physical activity as they get older and even though people think well if someones getting older and they gained a little weight. So what one of the biggest things is if someones getting older and theyre decreasing their physical activity and they have hypertension or they have diabetes. If we start to have people exercising and eating well we might actually pull some other medications off of them. Which means theyll have less side effects. And that might help them feel better and then they might exercise more so i see every has a really nice domino effect and certainly with how much polypharmacy. We have with a lot of older adults. It would be great if we can take some medications away from them and make them healthier. So what we did was we let me just go back to our little design and our design was as small as a small study. It was up 16 weeks and it was a convenient sample of these women in the life center at penn. Basically what we did is we wanted to build them up to walking to at least three days a week mind you i had individuals there who had walkers we had some of my might i called them my ladies that who were blind some of them did not walk well they needed assistance. So we are not talking power walking here were talking getting these women up to try to exercise and build them from up from doing really no exercise to about 30 minutes per session. But in between we had to sort of rest them. And do chair exercises as well and i tell you all this one for the young. The young students in here that research is not always easy. And its never perfect number two that when you get people from a stage of not exercising at all who also have multiple diseases you have to really build them up slowly. And you have to be encouraging as well. So what did we find even though body weight was our major outcome. We found no changes in body weight okay. Thats all right. But the one thing that i forgot to tell you is is that in each time point at 0 8.
And 16 weeks we recorded their dietary intake. But we also gave them these things called active cal accelerometers that we have them wear around the wrist. They wear them 24 7. For a week. Theyre theyre akin to you know some of the fitbits that you see today. But they give us a little bit more detailed information. And so what we found from that was that at eight weeks for some reason and we think. Its because they were sort of excited to be in our program. They had a significant increase in the calories. They expended based on this active cal accelerometer and we saw the same thing with moderate activity. So that this means that outside of what they were doing with us they were generally more active which again for these women. I was hoping for that that their activities of daily living were greater even when they werent with us. And that was an exciting piece. We didnt find weight loss. But we found increased physical activity and so again we didnt find the weight loss some of that could be for some of these women who had congestive heart failure or kidney disease and held on to more fluids that we werent finding those changes when we weighed them in but also but most importantly was we found increase in physical activity. We also found from a sort of qualitative standpoint. That they really did enjoy the fact that they had this camaraderie with other women so they do continue that program at life lots of flaws to this particular study. We didnt have a control group. But the good news was is we got them moving more so again age is no disease and we can change our we can change our lifestyle at it at any any point in our lives. So i sort of focused on the exercise. Part and now ill end with the nutrition. Part and so how is it that we can balance out exercise. No matter. How old we are and eating healthily. No matter how old we are and so kind of alluding to sort of what dean was talking about and we really overuse our earth and we have about 3800 calories per person a day more than we actually need so we really waste a lot of food especially in the united states and this slide shows you this was a study done a long time ago. But its something we as researchers get a little frustrated with is that when people ask people to tell us what they eat typically what they do for their energy intake is they significantly underestimate what they take in doesnt surprise any of us. But they typically its not that theyre trying to lie. Its just that people dont either remember or they might not want to quite tell us what theyve eaten and they also significantly overestimate how much physical activity they get in a day. So people sort of think maybe they do thing. But then they might actually do something else um. Id like this slide. Because its sort of as you know rings a little true with sometimes when you talk to see some of your friends. Or you hear people say well yeah. Okay if ive got to get to the hole. The doughnut.
But ive got to eat that doughnut to get to the hole. The doughnut so i mean i guess none of you think its that funny. But thank you all right because remember this is being taped. So i have to act laugh really loudly and so. But what can we do so speaking of doughnuts. Which some people eat in the morning eating breakfast actually is a really great way to start your day like all of our moms have told us right. But its a great way for many reasons it actually people who eat breakfast tend to have decreased disease and they also actually tend to have a better body weight. They actually tend to maintain their body weight better than those who skip breakfast. Who think oh i dont really need to eat breakfast. Nor do i want to because those are more calories and also those who eat breakfast tend to make better choices throughout the day compared to those who dont by the. Way if you do eat breakfast you expend about 15000. Calories. More per year than those who dont thats because digestion and absorption take energy. So by skipping breakfast. What happens is your body slows. The metabolism down a little bit more and says i dont know when theyre eating next. So i better protect them and hold on to that fat a little bit more and thats really goes against what people are trying to do the other thing is is to set goal set goals for exercise set goals for eating because if you set some goals for yourself youll youll likely go after them. But the goal shouldnt be too lofty because oftentimes people will come up to me. And say oh you know what i really need to lose 50 pounds. And theyve been 50 pounds overweight for a number of years then ill say okay okay. But we um sort of need to work on maybe. 10 pound increments and when i say that to someone they sort of get frustrated. But i really try to work with them to say lets work on small bits at a time. The other thing is enjoy eating so in our country. I think that we a feel guilty about almost everything we put in our mouths and b. We dont tend to sit and enjoy. When we eat growing up from two italian immigrants where everything and i was blessed with having everything homemade from the gardens that my parents had and yeah. The typical hot peppers hanging from the ceiling and the prosciutto hanging from the ceiling. And my dad made homemade wine that we enjoyed eating we we always sat down together as a family homemade spaghetti at least twice a week so things were just wonderful and i grew up that way so its really odd you know that we have so much processed food and how that sort of changed in our lives. And we all want to eat fast like our whole society sort of moving quickly. So even. If youre at your desk. Studying or doing work. Even. If you turn away from that computer for about ten minutes to try to actually know what youre beating. Because the old adage of it takes 15 or 20 minutes for your brain to know that youve actually eaten is true. So be aware of that because thats another thing that if weight loss is in your what you want to do then you want to make sure that you actually know that youre full. Were all guilty of it of eating fast eating in the car then you spill something and coffee on your way to work and youre like darn it i wish i didnt do that so speaking of decrease eating on the run you know so just it and we tend to when we eat on the run also make poor choices right you know that if youre really .
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